Humans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first critical hours and days of exposure to a new pathogen, our innate immune system.
It is important to realize that there is a constant battle going on inside you between a potential pathogen and that of the innate immune system, your first line of defense. It’s critical to the maintenance of your overall health.
First Line of Defense
The root of both "mannose" and "mannitol" is manna, which the Bible records as the food supplied to the Israelites during their journey in the region of Sinai.
The first-line of host defense is the innate immune system, including mannose-binding lectin (MBL). MBL belongs to the class of collectins in the C-type lectin superfamily, whose function appears to be pattern recognition in the first line of defense in the pre-immune host.
Malfunctions of innate immune function, including those related to MBL, may result in complications of infection, inflammation and coagulation, which may result in multifactorial organ damage.
Accumulating evidence indicates that the human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a gene product that plays a role in first-line host defense. It acts as an opsonin either directly or by virtue of its ability to activate what’s called the Complement System. In the complement cascade, a panel of molecules rapidly and effectively senses a danger or damage and triggers reactions to provide a response that discriminates among foreign intruders, cellular debris, healthy and altered host cells.
Opsonins facilitate recognition, binding, ingestion, and killing of microorganisms by phagocytosis. Phagocytosis, or “cell eating”, is the process by which a cell engulfs a particle and digests it. The process of phagocytosis often happens when the cell is trying to destroy something, like a virus or an infected cell, and is often used by immune system cells. MBL facilitates phagocytosis of cellular debris and may therefore prevent autoimmunity.
Graphene Oxide Nanoparticle Defense
The ability of the innate immune system, and, in particular, of the complement proteins, to mediate Nanoparticle clearance is dependent on phagocytes. Phagocytosis is a way to intracellularly confine potentially dangerous materials and microbes and, possibly, degrade and/or kill them.
This can be especially important when discussing the potential dangers of Graphene Oxide. Intravenously injected nanomaterials can have a vast impact of health. Adverse health events often occur as a result of an insult to the body’s natural defense mechanisms. Our Innate and Adaptive immune systems, when functioning at optimal levels, are exceptional at combating a myriad of environmental assaults.
However, when our immune systems are compromised by external factors it results in an unnatural response that ultimately leads to an inflammatory cytokine storm that is unable to be turned off. This process leads to a plethora of chronic health related issues.
When a nanomaterial is introduced into a living system it interacts with biological molecules (proteins, lipids, etc.) leading to the formation of a so-called bio-corona on the surface, or, to put this in immunological terms, the nanomaterial is opsonized (the process whereby pathogens or cells are rendered more susceptible to phagocytosis).
Complement proteins have been consistently identified in or on nanoparticle coronas. Several reports have documented pathway-specific complement activation by various types of nanomaterials including carbon-based nanomaterials such as graphene oxide.
Macrophages (“big eaters”) are professional phagocytes arising from the bone marrow; these cells are referred to as monocytes when they are present in the peripheral circulation and “macrophages” when they reside in tissues. Macrophage phagocytosis of pathogens is facilitated through opsonization by immunoglobulins and components of the complement system.
Studies show that primary human monocyte-derived macrophages efficiently engulf graphene oxide.
90% of the population
Research shows that 90% of the entire world’s population may have a propensity towards a malfunctioning immune system through a deficiencies that have been associated with susceptibility to autoimmune and infectious diseases.
Studies show that up to 50% of individuals in some populations are affected by what’s called a Mannose Binding Lectin Deficiency (MBL-D). This triggers what’s called a Complement Deficiency, to which only 10% are identified.
In other words, up to 90% of affected individuals have a propensity towards a malfunctioning immune system through a combined MBL-D and Complement Deficiency.
These are staggering numbers and may be at the heart of infectious and autoimmune diseases.
What is Mannose Binding Lectin?
MBL plays an important role in the body's immune response by attaching to foreign invaders such as bacteria, viruses, or fungus and turns on the complement system. The complement system is a group of immune system proteins that work together to destroy foreign invaders (pathogens), triggers acute inflammation, and removes debris from cells and tissues.
The complement system plays a vital role in the protection of a host from invading bacteria and other microorganisms. However, this potent immunological weapon must be tightly regulated, or there is a risk of attack of host tissues leading to damage via an inappropriate inflammatory response.
Studies of human immune cells suggest that MBL deficiency may influence proinflammatory cytokine production leading to chronic inflammation. MBL-D individuals display unique functional characteristics, including higher production of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α.
With decreased levels of mannose-binding lectin, the body does not recognize and fight foreign invaders efficiently. A lack of functional MBL to bind pathogens and activate the complement cascade may have important consequences for the health of an individual. Indeed, MBL deficiency has been associated with a number of important infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune disease states in humans.
Bacteria, Fungus, & Viruses
MBL recognizes sugar patterns found on the surface of a large number of pathogenic micro-organisms, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi.
The mannose-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of the complement cascade has an essential role in the eradication of Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme Disease).
Mannose Binding Lectin also inhibits Candida albicans, the most prevalent fungal species of the human microbiota.
Studies show that Mannose Binding Lectin can inhibit the infection of influenza A virus as well.
In addition, more than two-thirds of patients with mycoplasma infections had genotypic MBL deficiency (compared with one-third in the general population).
In summary, this is why Core Manna is essential! Because no matter what comes your way, you’ll always have a front line defense!
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